제 14 장 분 사 (Participle)

 

1. 분사의 종류

 

(1) 현재분사- be동사와 결합하여 진행형을 만든다.

ex) They are playing soccer now.

I had lunch while he was coming here.

※ 현재분사와 동명사는 그 형태는 [원형 + ing]로서 같으나 , 그 용법이 다르다.

① 동명사는 동사와 명사의 구실을 하고, 현재분사는 동사와 형용사의 구실을 한다.

② 동명사는 용도나 목적을 표시하며, 현재분사는 동작이나 상태를 나타낸다.

ex) a sleeping car(침대차) [용도:동명사]
= a car which is used for sleeping.

a sleeping baby(자고 있는 아이) [동작:현재분사]
= a baby who is sleeping

(2) 과거분사- be동사와 결합하여 수동태를 만들고, have동사와 결합하여 완료형을 만든다.

ex) This book was written by Mr. Park.

Have you ever seen a tiger?

When I arrived at the station, the train had already started.

분사의 형태와 종류

1. 분사의 형태 : 현재분사 = 동사원형 + ing : 능동

과거분사 = 동사원형 + ed [불규칙동사의 p.p]: 수동

2. 자동사의 현재분사 ⇒ 진행 (∼하고 있는)

자동사의 과거분사 ⇒ 완료, 상태 (∼한, ∼해버린)

ex 1) a sleeping baby → 자고 있는 아이.

2) a swimming girl → 수영하고 있는 소녀 (진행).

3) a fallen leaves → 떨어져버린 잎 (낙엽 - 완료)

3. 타동사의 현재분사 ⇒ 능동 . 사역 (∼하게 하는, ∼시키는)

타동사의 과거분사 ⇒ 수동 (∼당한, ∼된, ∼받은)

ex 1) an exciting game. → 열광적인 경기 (능동)

2) an excited spectator → 열광된 관중 (수동)

3) The story is interesting.

He was interested in the subject.

 

2. 분사의 용법

 

(1) 한정적 용법- 명사의 앞뒤에서 그 명사를 수식.

① 현재분사- 능동 . 진행의 뜻이 있다. [∼하고 있는]

ex 1) Where did you see a running dog?

2) Do you know the man standing at the gate?
= Do you know the man who is standing at the gate?

② 과거분사- 수동의 의미. [∼하여진]

ex 1) Look at the fallen leaves.

2) Yesterday I got a letter written in English.
= Yesterday I got a letter which was written in English.

(2) 서술적 용법- 분사는 주격보어와 목적보어로 쓰인다.

① 주격보어

ex) He seemed very pleased with my gift.

I feel tired all the time.

They became strongly united.

He stood watching TV.

He came running.

② 목적격 보어

ex) I heard him playing the piano.

Leave the door closed.

※ 분사의 관용적 표현으로서 다음과 같이 쓰이는 경우도 있다.

ex) They kept talking.

I spent most of time reading.

※ 지각동사의 목적보어가 원형부정사일 때와 현재분사일 때, 그 뜻이 다르다.

ex 1) I saw her sing a song.
= She sang a song and I saw it.

2) I saw her singing a song.
= She was singing a song when I saw her.

※ 사역동사의 목적보어로는 현재분사가 될 수 없다.

ex) I made him clean the room. (○)

I made him cleaning the room. (×)

((cf.)) have(get) + 사물 + 과거분사: ∼시키다, ∼당하다

ex) I had my shoes mended.

I had my bag stolen in the bus.

I had him mend my shoes.

I had him repair my watch.
= I got him to repair my watch.
= I had my watch repaired by him.
= I got my watch repaired by him.

 

3. 분사구문

 

(1) 분사구문을 만드는 법

분사를 이용하여 부사절을 부사구로 만든 것을 분사구문이라고 한다.

① 분사구문의 의미상의 주어가 주문의 주어와 같을 때에는 주어는

주문에만 붙인다.

ex) As I have no money, I can't buy it.
→ Having no money, I can't buy it.

② 두 개의 주어가 다를 때에는 의미상의 주어를 분사 앞에 놓는다.

이 경우를 독립분사구문이라고 한다.

ex) As it was fine, we went on a picnic.
→ It being fine, we went on a picnic.

(2) 분사구문의 용법- 시간 조건 이유 양보 계속 동시동작

① 시간(while, when, after, as)

ex) Walking in the street, I met an old friend of mime.
= While I was walking in the street, I met ∼.

② 원인 이유(because, as)

ex) Being sick, he was absent from school.
= Because he was sick, he was absent from school.

③ 조건(if)

ex) Turning to the right there, you will find the building.
= If you turn to the right there, you will ∼.

④ 양보(though=although)

ex) Living next to his house, I don't know him.
= Though I live next to his house, I don't ∼

⑤ 계속(-and)

ex) The train leaves at six, arriving at Chinju at noon.
= The train leaves at six, and it arrives ∼

⑥ 동시동작(as=[--하면서])

ex) Saying "good-buy", he went out of the house.
= He went out of the house as he said "good-by".

■ 분사구문의 부정은 not을 분사 앞에 놓는다.

ex) Not receiving an answer, I wrote to him again.
= As I did not receive an answer, I wrote ----.

■ 분사구문의 시제는 주문(主文)에 의해 결정됨.

ex) Being tired, I went to bed early.
= As I was tired, I went to bed early.

수동태의 분사구문에서는 being을 생략하는 것이 보통이다.

ex) Written in haste, the book has a few mistakes.

분사구문에 관한 보충

분사구문이란 접속사 + 주어 + 동사인 절을 현재분사의 형태인 동사원형 +ing로 간단히 줄여 구(句)로 만든 구문이다.

◆ 절을 분사구문으로 고치는 방법

① 접속사를 생략한다.

② 부사절 또는 등위절의 주어가 주절의 주어와 같을 때는

그 절의 주어를 없앤다.

③ 접속사가 있는 절의 동사를 {동사원형 + ing}로 고친다.

시간 . 때 (When, While, After, As → ∼할 때, ∼하는 동안)

ex 1) When he saw me, he ran away.
= Seeing me, he ran away.

2) While I was walking along the street, I met a friend.
= Walking along the street, I met a friend.

이유 . 원인 (As, Because, Since → ∼때문에)

ex 1) As I have no money with me, I can't help you.
= Having no money with me, I can't help you.

2) Since I feel tired, I will stay at home.
= Feeling tired, I will stay at home.

조건 (If → ∼한다면)

ex 1) If you turn to the right, you will find the house.
= Turning to the right, you will find the house.

2) If you take this train, you will arrive in London at six.
= Taking this train, you will arrive in London at six.

양보 (Though, Although, Even if → ∼이지만, ∼한다 하더라도)

ex 1) Though I admit what you say, I still don't believe it.
= Admitting what you say, I still don't believe it.

2) Even if we grant that it is true, we can't agree with you.
= Granting that it is true, we can't agree with you.

부대상황 (동시동작 : While, As → ∼하면서)

ex 1) He extended his hand, smiling brightly.
= He extended his hand, while he smiled brightly.

2) They supported him, saying that he was right.
= They supported him, while they said that he was right.

부대상황 (연속동작 : And ∼ → 그리고 ∼하다)

ex 1) We started in the morning, and arrived in Seoul at seven.
= We started in the morning, arriving Seoul at seven.

2) He picked up a stone, and threw it at a dog.
= He picked up a stone, throwing it at a dog.

분사구문의 시제

1. 분사의 형태

{{{{ 종류

동사

}}{{ 단순형 분사

}}{{ 완료형 분사

}}{{능동형

}}{{수동형

}}{{능동형

}}{{수동형

}}{{ do

}}{{doing

}}{{being done

}}{{having done

}}{{having been done

}}{{ make

}}{{making

}}{{being made

}}{{having made

}}{{having been made

}}{{

}}{{주절의 동사와 같은 시제

}}{{주절의 동사보다 하나 더 과거시제

}}

}}

 

 

⊙ 부정사, 동명사, 분사의 일반적인 시제 형태

{{{{주절의 동사시제

}}{{단순형(부정사, 동명사, 분사)

}}{{완료형(부정사, 동명사, 분사)

}}{{현재

}}{{현재(주절의 동사와 같은 시제)

}}{{과거.과거완료(하나 더 과거)

}}{{과거

}}{{과거(주절의 동사와 같은 시제)

}}{{과거완료(하나 더 과거)

}}

}}

 

ex 1) As I live in the country, I am very healthy.
= Living in the country, I am very healthy.

2) As I lived in the country, I was very healthy.
= Living in the country, I was very healthy.

3) As I have finished[finished] my work, I go now.
= Having finished my work, I go home.

4) As I had read the book, I returned it to him.
= Having read the book, i returned it to him.

2. Being, Having been의 생략

: Being . Having been + 과거분사 . 형용사 . 명사의 구문에서 Being 또는 Having been은 생략이 가능하다.
분사구문의 시제가 동사와 같을 땐 Being이, 주절의 동사보다 하나 더 과거시제를 나타낼 때는 Having been이 생략된 것이다.

ex 1) As he was tired, he went to bed earlier.
= Tired(= Being tired), he went to bed earlier

2) As the book was written in haste, it has many mistakes.
= Written(= Having been written) in haste, the book has many mistakes.

3) As he was a kind man, he was loved by all.
= A kind man(= Being a kind man), he was loved by all.

독립분사구문

: 분사구문의 의미상의 주어가 주절의 주어와 같을 경우에는 분사구문의 의미상의 주어를 따로 쓸 필요가 없지만, 분사구문의 의미상의 주어가 주절의 주어와 다를 경우에는 의미상의 주어를 따로 써야 할 필요가 있다. 이와 같이 분사구문의 의미상의 주어가 주절의 주어와 다른 분사구문을 독립분사구문이라고 한다.

ex 1) When our dinner was over, we went out for a walk. (시간)
= Our dinner being over, we went out for a walk.

2) After the sun had set, we came down the hill. (시간)
= The sun having set, we came down the hill.

3) As it was rainy, I had to stay at home. (이유)
= It being rainy, I had to stay at home.

4) As there was no seat in the bus, I kept standing all the way. (이유)
= There being no seat in the bus, I kept standing all the way.

5) We shall start tomorrow, if the weather permits.
= We shall start tomorrow, weather permitting.

비인칭 독립분사구문

: 분사구문의 의미상의 주어가 일반인을 나타낼 때는 주절의 주어와 다를지라도 생략해야 되는데 이를 비인칭 독립분사구문이라 한다.

ex 1) If we judge from his accent, he must be a foreigner.
= Judging from his accent, he must be a foreigner.

2) Generally speaking, he is not a artist.

3) Strictly speaking, this is not correct.

4) Considering his age, he looks young. (나이에 비하면 ∼)

5) Roughly speaking, he is diligent. (대강 말해서 ∼)

[End of Participle]